3 Most Common ENT Problems


ENT problems refer to Ear, Nose and throat disorders among individuals. They are treated by doctors known as ENT Specialists or Otolaryngologists. Regular visits to the top ENT Specialist in Karachi or a specialist in your region are an important part of your healthcare regime as they help with timely diagnosis and suitable treatment.

This article focuses on three of the most common ENT issues.

  1. Tonsillitis:

Definition: Tonsils are 2 oval-shaped lymph nodes at the back of your throat. They are responsible for fighting bacteria and viruses in the mouth and throat. However, if the tonsils get infected, they swell up and cause inflammation; a condition known as tonsillitis. Tonsillitis may occur at any age, but is most common in children.

Symptoms: Include a sore throat, red and swollen tonsils, fever, difficulty in swallowing, earaches, headaches, swollen neck gland, white or yellow discharge on tonsils, and bad breath. If the tonsils swell up too much, they may cause difficulty in breathing resulting in snoring, breathing with an open mouth, and drooling. This is particularly common in children with tonsillitis.

Treatment: Varies with the cause of the disease in individuals. Tonsillitis caused by bacteria is often treated with an antibiotic. The antibiotic course generally runs for a 10 day period. For tonsillitis cause by a viral infection, doctors mostly recommend rest, taking a lot of fluids to stay hydrated, common pain killers, and throat lozenges (cough drops). In case of chronic tonsillitis, the tonsils are removed via a surgery called tonsillectomy.

  1. Sinusitis:

Definition: The sinuses are hollow cavities filled with air. Inflammation or swelling of the soft tissue lining the sinuses is a condition known as Sinusitis.

Symptoms: Include a blocked nose, decreased sense of smell, bad breath, toothache, fever, sinus headache, runny nose or discolored postnasal drainage, sore throat, cough, pain in the sinuses, nasal congestion, and facial swelling.

Treatment: Includes the use of saline nasal sprays or nasal washes, decongestants, and antibiotics. Steam, vaporizers, and warm compressors can also help.  However, if the infection does not respond to medication, a surgery known as the endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) may be needed.

  1. Vertigo:

Definition: It is a condition whereby the body feels off balance and the patient feels dizzy. Vertigo is mostly caused by imbalances in the inner ear. Ear problems such as Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo or BPPV (dizziness caused by certain head movements), migraines (severe headaches), labyrinthitis (inner ear infection) vestibular neuronitis (inflammation of the vestibular nerve), are common causes of vertigo.

Symptoms: Include loss of balance, dizziness, nausea, headache, vomiting, abnormal or jerking eye movements, sweating, ringing in the ears or hearing loss. Attacks often occur suddenly and last for a few seconds.

Treatment: Varies according to the cause. For BPPV, certain head movements are prescribed by doctors. Medication like prochlorperazine and some antihistamines are used in the treatment of most cases. Moreover, vestibular rehabilitation training (VRT) is a form of physical therapy used to treat balance issues in patients of vertigo.

The ear problems listed above are only three of the countless ENT related issues. For proper diagnosis and treatment of issues related to ENT, it is best to seek professional guidance by visiting the best ENT Specialist in Karachi or your area.